Published: April 13, 2017
by Tobias Pleyer
Tags: python, import

A closer look at Python’s import mechanism - Part 2

Outline of the Series

  1. What is a module?
  2. The low level import interface
  3. Bootstrapping and the importlib module
  4. How to customize Python’s import behaviour

The low level import interface

This is the second part in a series of articles about Python’s import mechanism. I am planning to give a detailed look on the entire call stack, from the very low level interface to the very high level interface and its manipulation facilities. You can start at the beginning here.

Remark: All my findings, references and source code depictions are based on the CPython GitHub repository checked out at tag v3.6.1rc1.

Since 2009 Python exposes its import mechanism via the importlib module. As the short introductory text of the module documentation explains, the purpose of this module is to provide an implementation of import in pure Python and to expose the functions behind import. This allows for easier customization. The importlib module and its boostrapping will be the content of the third part of this series. Customization of the import behaviour of Python will be comprised in the fourth part.

Even though Python exposes big part of its import machinery as pure Python code, it cannot expose everything. Python is written in C and it is unavoidable that the interal bookkeeping and definition of objects has to be implemented in C. This low-level code (located in import.c) will be part of this series.

The callstack

call stack of Python's import statement
call stack of Python's import statement

The above image shows the callstack involved with the import statement. The dis module helps to verify this:

Which gives the following output


This disassembly shows us what happens with the import statement. As the disassembly shows, the statement

import simple

becomes the byte code IMPORT_NAME (108). In order to trace the call further, we have to know how the byte code IMPORT_NAME is translated. A look in ceval.c, where the byte code is evaluated, shows us that IMPORT_NAME is mapped to the function import_name, which in turn tries to call the builtin import function, known as __import__, in the builtin namespace. The default implementation of this function can be found in bltinmodule.c and ultimately maps onto PyImport_ImportModuleLevelObject, which is defined in import.c. This is the roadmap leading to the innards of Python’s import machinery.

As stated above the implementation of the import statement is provided in the module importlib. Is the code in import.c the module definition for importlib? Well - yes and no. Yes because these are closely related and interlocked. No because import.c forms a module by its own - _imp - and importlib is pure Python code. As the Python standard hints the underscore means privacy, i.e. it is intended for internal use. Part 3 of the series will shine more light on this. In the following I want to exemplify on the tasks of import.c.

Import hooks

Not very surprisingly Python’s import mechanism has undergone some change with the evolvement of Python. One of these changes was the introduction of a hook mechanism to facilitate customization. PEP302 is a very recommendable source for this matter. PEP302 mentions the problems with the old mechanism and how the Python core developer team tried to tackle the problem. I won’t detail this, because the document is really well written. One of the key aspects, as explained in the paper, is the hook based nature of import. The PEP mentions three special objects involved: meta_path, path_hooks and path_importer_cache. The initialization of these is amongst the duties of import.c and done in the function _PyImportHooks_Init. The lookup in path_importer_cache and the traversal of path_hooks is also done in this module.

Thread safety

The import of a module should be thread safe. Loading the same module from different threads shouldn’t lead to broken or partially loaded modules. The serialization routines, aka locks, are provided by this module: _PyImport_AcquireLock, _PyImport_ReleaseLock and _PyImport_ReInitLock

Management of sys.modules

Querying, adding removing and manipulating the internal dictionary sys.modules is also done here. But this is not solely left to import.c. Since sys.modules is exposed at the Python level, Python code can also manipulate this dictionary at will.

Loading extension modules

The loading of extension modules, which are dynamically compiled object files (e.g. .dll or .so), is also managed by this module. Since this involves dynamic loading of symbols from a compiled source, this needs the lower level C interface of dl.h. What this means was explained in the first part of the series. The module will lookup a function PyInit_XXX and execute it. This will fill the module which will then be stored in sys.modules.

Importing frozen modules

Frozen modules play a crucial role in the boostrapping process of importlib. A frozen module is the compiled object of a pure Python module. It is “frozen” because the compilation process “freezes” the current state of the module, like a snapshot.