Python Plugin for Neovim

Intro

I’m a big fan of Vim and use it as my editor of choice. Recently I decided to make the switch to Neovim.

At work we are dealing with a lot of texts in different languages. In order to be able to translate the texts into the correct language the source code does not contain the actual text, but a text ID which is used as a lookup in a text database. this serves us well but unfortunately we have no tooling around this text database. So everytime when I browse the code and wonder what the text behind the ID is I have to copy it, paste it into the query web interface of the database in the browser and then wait for a while because this web interface is not very fast for some reasons…

This is not all that bad but it tends to become a bit annoying, especially because I have to leave my editor all the time and, even worse, use the mouse :)

So I thought: “Hey, why not write a simple plugin for that?”

The Plugin

Neovim makes it quite easy to integrate ordinary Python code as a plugin. All you need is a python installation of your choice and then install the neovim-rpc client library. In my case:

Afterwards you can write Python code that communicates with the Neovim runtime via msgpack RPC calls. Here is the relevant Neovim remote plugin documentation.

The procedure to write a Neovim Python plugin can be summarized like this:

  • Install the pynvim module
  • Set the path to the correct Python executable in your init.vim
  • Write a Python module with a class that is decorated with @pynvim.plugin
  • Within the class you can export methods as commands or functions to Neovim via the respective decorators
  • Save the file in a folder that is on Neovim’s runtime path and conforms to Neovim’s remote plugin folder policy
  • Once the code is ready you have to run :UpdateRemotePlugins within an nvim instance, so Neovim knows about it

I mentioned the remote plugin folder policy above. This means that for every folder in the runtimepath of Neovim expects a certain hierarchy for plugins and remote plugins. In the case of Python3 it searches plugins under the path rplugin/python3. Speaking in my case

  • I’m using Linux
  • Under Linux the folder $HOME/.config/nvim is Neovim’s configuration folder and as such also on its runtimepath
  • I save the plugin as $HOME/.config/nvim/rplugin/python3/textid.py

The Plan

My plan is very simple:

  • Download the whole text database once and save it to a file (this takes a bit but is definitely doable)
  • Provide the filename as part of my Neovim configuration
  • At startup read the file from the plugin and safe it as a dictionary
  • The toggle between ID and text is done via simple regular expression replacement

A small caveat: Once a text ID has been translated it is simply plain text. In this form it would be virtually impossible to translate it back to a text ID, because we have to extract it from all the rest of source code. So to make this easier I prepend and append two dashes (‘–’) to the text. This is not bullet proof of course but in my case unusual enough that I can fund the text again later.

The Code

Here is the full plugin code:

import re
import pynvim

@pynvim.plugin
class Translator(object):
    def __init__(self, vim):
        self.vim = vim
        self.data_base = None
        self.reverse_data_base = None
        self.reTextId = re.compile('"(?P<textid>(?P<category>\d+)-(?P<number>\d+))"')
        self.reTranslated = re.compile('"--(?P<translation>[ a-zA-Z0-9.,;:!?-]*)--"')
        self.update_db()

    @pynvim.command('UpdateTextDb', sync=True)
    def update_db(self):
        self.data_base = {}
        self.reverse_data_base = {}
        db_file = self.vim.vars.get('textid_db_file')
        if db_file:
            with open(db_file, "r") as db:
                for line in db.readlines():
                    tid, text = line.strip().split('|')
                    self.data_base[tid] = text
                    self.reverse_data_base[text] = tid

    def lookup_text_id_by_match(self, matchObject):
        tid = matchObject.group("textid")
        if tid in self.data_base:
            return '"--' + self.data_base[tid] + '--"'
        else:
            self.vim.out_write(f"Unknown text ID: {tid}")
            return f'"{tid}"'

    def lookup_translated_by_match(self, matchObject):
        text = matchObject.group("translation")
        if text in self.reverse_data_base:
            return '"' + self.reverse_data_base[text] + '"'
        else:
            self.vim.out_write(f"Unknown text")
            return f'"--{text}--"'

    def toggle_line(self, line):
        if self.reTextId.search(line):
            return self.reTextId.sub(self.lookup_text_id_by_match, line)
        else:
            return self.reTranslated.sub(self.lookup_translated_by_match, line)

    @pynvim.command('ToggleTextId', range=True, nargs='*', sync=True)
    def command_handler(self, args, range):
        start, end = range
        # Range is given 1-based, but we need 0-based indexing
        lines = self.vim.current.buffer[start-1:end]
        toggled_lines = list(map(self.toggle_line, lines))
        self.vim.current.buffer[start-1:end] = toggled_lines

And here are the relevant bits of my init.vim file:

Summary

The presented plugin is nothing special or very robust. It is easy to break it or bring it to its limits. But we have to keep in mind that this is not production code. It is code for my personal needs in a very narrow domain and I know I will use it the right way. The important point is

You can use the full power of Python within Neovim with just a few lines of code