Python entry points


The standard way to distribute a Python package is to ship the sources with a file at the top level of the package. This file holds all the information necessary to build and install the shipped package. The content of this file can grow quite a lot for fairly big and well documented projects, but all of them follow the very same simple pattern

from setuptool import setup

setup (

The setup function has many options, the one I want to talk about is the entry_points keyword. The most typical example of an entry point is the so called console_scripts entry point. Here an example from pytest's

    entry_points={'console_scripts': [
        'pytest=pytest:main', 'py.test=pytest:main']},

When we install the pytest package this will cause the following two executables to be present on the system’s path: pytest, py.test.

What are they?

Concise answer: Entry points are a global map of maps of Python importable objects.

Lending Haskell’s type annotation syntax:

entry_points :: Map String (Map String PythonImportable)

The elements of the outer map are called groups. A group bundles common interest or functionality. It is important to note that there exist no enforced standards or conventions how to choose the lookup string. If a string is chosen too general name clashes are very likely.

The inner map maps strings (freely choosable) on Python browsable/importable objects which are written in Python’s dotted import syntax

name: The lookup key for the browsable Python object
package.subpackage.module could correspond to a file
package/subpackage/ on Python's path
The colon ':' separates the object from path specification.

# This is equivalent to the following code
from package.subpackage.module import objectname as name

Because entry points are global, as mentioned above, every Python module can gain access to every entry point. How this is done I’ll show below.

I don’t know the exact details of the implementation of entry points. From what I got the information is written to files following a standard format and standard locations.

What are they good for?

The two biggest use cases are

  1. Providing commands in the terminal
  2. Supporting plugins

Console Scripts

I already talked a bit about the first point, console scripts. Let’s come back to the example above.

entry_points = {'console_scripts': ['pytest=pytest:main']}

Console scripts is a builtin feature of setuptools and will create a script on the system’s path with the name of the left hand side of the equal sign and make it a wrapper around the specified Python object (which should be callable).

Here’s how it looks on my computer

# This file is located under /usr/local/bin/pytest

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import re
import sys

from pytest import main

if __name__ == '__main__':
    sys.argv[0] = re.sub(r'(-script\.pyw?|\.exe)?$', '', sys.argv[0])


Again I choose pytest as an example. Pytest is a pretty large testing framework which allows plugins to extend its functionality. This automatically brings up the question how this can be done. From a maintainers point of view it is a pain to take responsibility of maintaining that much third party code and keep it in the main repository. In addition if a user has a very project specific need, that user needs to have a chance to integrate this functionality quickly in his test suite, without hacking the source code or waiting forever for the plugin to maybe go mainline.

Instead pytest offers a very general registration system. Plugins must inherit from certain classes provided by pytest and then register themselves under a name in the entry point group pytest11 (see the docs). When pytest is run, it will parse and import every entry point registered for its group and feed it with data via a hook mechanism based on certain events happening during program execution.

# The example taken from pytest's documentation
# sample ./ file
from setuptools import setup

    packages = ['myproject']

    # the following makes a plugin available to pytest
    entry_points = {
        'pytest11': [
            'name_of_plugin = myproject.pluginmodule',

    # custom PyPI classifier for pytest plugins
        "Framework :: Pytest",


The last example concerns those that write a library and want to provide their own entry point group. How do you access the registered entry points? The following code is an example I got from a PyCon talk of Phoenix Zerin, starting from minute 24.

from pkg_resources import iter_entry_points
skynet_commands = list(iter_entry_points('skynet.commands'))
# load brings the object into the local namespace
first = skynet_commands[0].load()
# now we can call whatever object was registered